Landscape and Earth in Early Modernity

Landscape and Earth in Early Modernity

Picturing Unruly Nature

Early modern views of nature and the earth upended the depiction of land. Landscape emerged as a site of artistic exploration at a time when environments and ecologies were reshaped and transformed. This volume historicizes the contingency of an ever-changing elemental world, reframing and reimagining landscape as a mediating space in the interplay between the natural and the artificial, the real and the imaginary, the internal and the external. The lens of the “unruly” reveals the latent landscapes that undergirded their conception, the elemental resources that resurfaced from the bowels of the earth, the staged topographies that unsettled the boundaries between nature and technology, and the fragile ecologies that undermined the status quo of human environs. Landscape and Earth in Early Modernity: Picturing Unruly Nature argues for an art history attentive to the vicissitudes of circumstance and attributes the regrounding of representation during a transitional age to the unquiet landscape.
  • Cover
  • Table of Contents
  • Acknowledgments
  • Landscape, Mutability, and the Unruly Earth: An Introduction
    • Christine Göttler
  • Part 1. Latent Landscapes
    • 1. Waterland and the Disquiet of the Dutch Landscape
      • Mia M. Mochizuki
    • 2. Landscape and Autography
      • Victoria Sancho Lobis
    • 3. Painted Landscape before Landscape Painting in Early Modern England
      • Karin Leonhard
  • Part 2. Elemental Resources
    • 4. Unruly Indigo? Plants, Plantations, and Partitions
      • Romita Ray
    • 5. A Natural History in Stone: Medusa’s Unruly Gaze on bardiglio grigio
      • Steffen Zierholz
    • 6. The Cosmologies of Early Modern Mining Landscapes
      • Tina Asmussen
  • Part 3. Staged Topographies
    • 7. Aurea Aetas Antverpiensis: Land(scapes) in the Blijde Inkomst for Ernest of Austria into Antwerp, 1594
      • Ivo Raband
    • 8. An Overlooked Landscape Installation: The Winter Room at Copenhagen’s Rosenborg Castle
      • Michèle Seehafer
    • 9. Insidious Images: Veiled Sight and Insight in Pieter Bruegel’s Landscapes
      • Michel Weemans
  • Part 4. Fragile Ecologies
    • 10. “In einem Augenblick”: Leveling Landscapes in Seventeenth-Century Disaster Flap Prints
      • Suzanne Karr Schmidt
    • 11. Performative Landscapes: A Paradigm for Mediating the Ecological Imperative?
      • Peter J. Schneemann
  • Index
  • List of Illustrations
    • Fig. 0.1: Song Dong, Doing Nothing Garden, 2010–2012. Daily-life rubbish and building rubbish with plants and neon signs, 7 × 32.5 × 23.5 m, Kassel, dOCUMENTA (13) (shown shortly before the opening of the exhibition). Image: © Song Dong, courtesy of Pace
    • Fig. 0.2: Crispijn de Passe the Elder after Theodorus Graminaeus, Cathena aurea Platonis, before 1593 (title page of the series The Seven Planets). Engraving, 24.3 × 18.6 cm, Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. no. RP–P–1981–186. Image: © Rijksmuseum, Am
    • Fig. 0.3: Crispijn de Passe the Elder after Maarten de Vos, Landscape with the Chariot of Venus, ca. 1600 (from the series The Seven Planets and the Catena aurea). Engraving, 24.5 × 18.7 cm (sheet), London, The British Museum, inv. no. 1862,0712.331. Imag
    • Fig. 0.4: Crispijn de Passe the Elder after Maarten de Vos, Landscape with the Chariot of Mars, before 1593 (from the series The Seven Planets and the Catena aurea). Engraving, 24.6 × 18.3 cm (sheet), Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. no. RP–P–1981–188
    • Fig. 0.5: Crispijn de Passe the Elder after Maarten de Vos, Landscape with the Chariot of Jupiter, before 1593 (from the series The Seven Planets and the Catena aurea). Engraving, 23.7 × 18.1 cm (sheet), Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. no. RP–P–1981–
    • Fig. 0.6: Crispijn de Passe the Elder after Maarten de Vos, Landscape with the Chariot of Saturn, before 1593 (from the series The Seven Planets and the Catena aurea). Engraving, 23.5 × 18 cm (sheet), Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. no. RP–P–1981–187
    • Fig. 0.7: Johannes Sadeler I after Maarten de Vos, The Sun and the Moon and Their Influences on the Provinces, Regions, and Cities, 1585 (from the series Planetarum effectus et eorum in signis zodiaci). Engravings, each ca. 23.5 × 24 cm, both cut within b
    • Fig. 0.8: Adriaen Huybrechts after Andrea Bacci, Ordo universi et humanarum scientiarum prima monumenta, 1585. Engraving, 60.3 × 42.7 cm, Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, RES QB–201 (170, 1)–FT 4. Image: © BnF.
    • Fig. 0.9: Nature in Her Workshop, in Cy comme[n]ce le roma[n]t de la rose. Ou tout lart damours est enclose (Geneva: Jean Croquet, ca. 1481), fol. 133r. Colored woodcut, 6.7 × 5.9 cm, with commentary by François Rasse des Neux, Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August
    • Fig. 0.10: Matthäus Merian the Elder, “His Nurse Is the Earth,” in Michael Maier, Atalanta fugiens (Oppenheim: Hieronymus Galler and Johann Theodor de Bry, 1618), 17. Engraving, 9.3 × 10.1 cm, Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, call no. A:196 Quod. (
    • Fig. 0.11: Hendrick Goltzius, Demogorgon in the Cave of Eternity (first print of the series of Demogorgon and the Deities), ca. 1586–1590. Chiaroscuro woodcut from one line block and two tone blocks in tan and dark grey, 35 × 26.3 cm, Coburg, Kunstsammlun
    • Fig. 0.12: Nature Nurturing the Growth of Metals, in Antonio Neri, Il tesoro del mondo (The Treasure of the World), fol. 2r. Pen and watercolor, 17 × 11 cm, Glasgow, University of Glasgow Archives and Special Collections, MS Ferguson 67. Image: © Universi
    • Fig. 0.13: Philips Galle after Maarten van Heemskerck, Man Born to Toil, 1572. Part of an album with prints by Maarten van Heemskerck and other artists, fol. 202r. Engraving, 20.9 × 24.8 cm (plate); 26.3 × 34.3 cm (sheet). Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet,
    • Fig. 0.14: Peter Candid, Vision of St. William of Malavalle, ca. 1600 (from the Chapel of St. William at Schleissheim). Oil on canvas, 306.5 × 174.5 cm, Munich, Bayerische Verwaltung der staatlichen Schlösser, Gärten und Seen, Nymphenburg, Marstalldepot,
    • Fig. 0.15: Johannes Sadeler I after Dirck Barendsz., Mankind Awaiting the Last Judgement (“Ita erit et adventus filii hominis”), 1581–1583. Engraving, 35 × 44.2 cm (cut within border), hand-colored in blue, green, red, and brown, glued onto a sheet of par
    • Fig. 0.16: Herri met de Bles (circle of), Landscape with Lot and His Daughters in Front of the Burning Sodom, sixteenth century. Oil on panel, 33.2 × 45.2 cm, Warsaw, Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie, inv. no. M.Ob.600 MNW. Image: © Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie
    • Fig. 0.17: Herri met de Bles (or workshop of), Landscape with Lot and His Daughters, second third of the sixteenth century. Oil on panel, 26 × 40 cm, Namur, TreM.a, Musée des arts anciens, inv. no. 245C. Image: © Coll. Province de Namur / G. Focant.
    • Fig. 1.1: Jan van Goyen, Landscape with Two Oaks, 1641. Oil on canvas, 88.5 × 110.5 cm, Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv. no. SK–A–123. Image: © Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
    • Fig. 1.2: Hendrick Goltzius, Dune Landscape, 1603. Pen and brown ink on paper, 9.1 × 15.4 cm, Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, inv. no. H253 (PK), on loan from Stichting Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen 1940 (formerly Collection Koenigs). Image: © C
    • Fig. 1.3: Hendrick Goltzius, Cliff on a Seashore, ca. 1592–1595. Chiaroscuro woodcut in sepia-ochre, green, and black ink on paper, 11.4 × 14.4 cm, Washington, D.C., National Gallery of Art, Rosenwald Collection, inv. no. 1943.3.4628. Image: © National Ga
    • Fig. 1.4: Leonardo da Vinci, Study of Rock Formations, ca. 1510–1515. Black chalk on paper, 16.4 × 20.1 cm, Windsor, Windsor Castle, Royal Library, inv. no. RCIN 912397. Image: © Royal Collection Trust / Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2021.
    • Fig. 1.5: Hendrick Cornelisz. Vroom, Battle between Dutch and Spanish Ships on the Haarlemmermeer (26 May 1573), ca. 1629. Oil on canvas, 190 × 268 cm, Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv. no. SK–A–602. Image: © Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
    • Fig. 1.6: Cornelis Anthonisz., View of Amsterdam, 1538. Oil on panel, 116 × 159 cm, Amsterdam, Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 3009. Image: © Amsterdam Museum.
    • Fig. 1.7: Geography and Chorography, in Petrus Apianus, Cosmographicus liber (Landshut: Johann Weissenburger, 1524), part 1, 3–4. Woodcut on paper, 21 × 15 cm, Washington, D.C., Smithsonian Libraries, Burndy Library, Special Collections, Gift of Bern Dibn
    • Fig. 1.8: Anonymous, Cantino Planisphere Portolan Chart, 1502. Ink on six sheets of glued parchment, 220 × 105 cm, Modena, Biblioteca Estense Universitaria, Gallerie Estensi, Fondo Cartografico / Fondo Estense, inv. no. CGA2. Image: © Su concessione del M
    • Fig. 1.9: Cornelis Anthonisz., Caerte van Oostlant, ca. 1560. Woodcut on nine sheets of mounted paper, 73 × 96.5 cm, Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, call no. K1.1. Image: © Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel.
    • Fig. 1.10: Coastal Profiles of North Holland, in Cornelis Anthonisz., Caerte van die Oosterse See (Amsterdam: Jan Ewoutsz., 1558), bound with Onderwijsinge vander zee, om stuermanschap te leeren, 3rd ed. (Amsterdam: Jan Ewoutsz., 1558), fol. 2v. Woodcut o
    • Fig. 1.11: Sea Chart of Portugal, in Lucas Jansz. Waghenaer, Spieghel der zeevaerdt (Leiden: Christophe Plantin, 1584), chart 17. Engraving, 32.5 × 51 cm, Utrecht, University Library, call no. P fol 111 Lk (Rariora). Image: © Utrecht University Library.
    • Fig. 1.12: Jan Christiaensz. Micker, View of Amsterdam, ca. 1652–1660. Oil on canvas, 100 × 137 cm, Amsterdam, Amsterdam Museum, inv. no. SA 1531. Image: © Amsterdam Museum.
    • Fig. 1.13: Jacob van Ruisdael, View of Haarlem with Bleaching Grounds, ca. 1670–1675. Oil on canvas, 55.5 × 62 cm, The Hague, Mauritshuis, inv. no. 155. Image: © Mauritshuis.
    • Fig. 1.14: Jan Collaert II, Astrolabe, in Johannes Stradanus, Nova Reperta (Antwerp: Philips Galle, [ca. 1580–1605]), plate 18. Engraving on paper, 27 × 33 cm, Chicago, Newberry Library, call no. VAULT Case Wing oversize Z412.85. Image: © Newberry Library
    • Fig. 1.15: Title Page, in Reinerus Gemma Frisius, De principiis astronomiae et cosmographiae ([Antwerp]: Joannes Grapheus for Servatio Zasseno, 1530). Woodcut on paper, 20.2 × 13.8 cm, Brussels, Bibliothèque Royale de Belgique, Rare Books, call no. LP3.01
    • Fig. 1.16: Gualterus Arsenius, Armillary Sphere, 1568. Brass, 36 × 26 cm, 4.2 kg, Greenwich, National Maritime Museum, Caird Collection, inv. no. AST 0618. Image: © National Maritime Museum.
    • Fig. 1.17: François van Knibbergen, Panoramic Dune Landscape around Kleve, ca. 1655–1665. Oil on canvas, 97.3 × 139.5 cm, Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv. no. SK–A–2361. Image: © Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
    • Fig. 1.18: Jan Porcellis, Shipwreck off the Coast, 1631. Oil on panel, 36.5 × 66.5 cm, The Hague, Mauritshuis, inv. no. 969. Image: © Mauritshuis.
    • Fig. 2.1: Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Wooded Landscape with Mills, 1552. Pen and brown ink on paper, 21.3 × 28.1 cm, Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, inv. no. F245 inf n9p. Image: © Veneranda Biblioteca Ambrosiana / Mondadori Portfolio.
    • Fig. 2.2: Nicolò Boldrini (attributed), Two Goats at the Foot of a Tree, ca. 1550–1570. Woodcut in light brown ink, 50 × 21.7 cm, London, The British Museum, inv. no. 1881,0709.80. Image: © The Trustees of the British Museum.
    • Fig. 2.3: Jan Brueghel the Elder, Wooded Landscape with a Family of Bears, Deer, and Other Wild Animals, ca. 1595. Pen and brown ink on paper, 33.9 × 24.3 cm, Paris, Fondation Custodia, Collection Frits Lugt, inv. no. 8025. Image: © Fondation Custodia, Co
    • Fig. 2.4: Pieter Bruegel the Elder (after), Forest Landscape with Wild Animals, ca. 1545–1599. Pen and brown ink on buff laid paper, laid down on card, 36 × 24.4 cm, Chicago, The Art Institute of Chicago, inv. no. 1922.1932. Image: © The Art Institute of
    • Fig. 2.5: Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Woodland Scene with Bears, ca. 1540–1569. Pen and brown ink over black chalk, 33.7 × 23.2 cm, London, The British Museum, inv. no. 1872,1012.3344. Image: © The Trustees of the British Museum.
    • Fig. 2.6: Roelandt Savery, Mountainous Landscape with a Draftsman, ca. 1606. Pen and brown ink, 51.3 × 48.2 cm, Paris, Département des arts graphiques, Musée du Louvre, inv. no. 20721–recto. Image: © RMN-Grand Palais / Art Resource, NY. Photo: Thierry Oll
    • Fig. 2.7: Roelandt Savery, Houses behind the Lobkowitz Palace in Prague, ca. 1604–1605. Pen and brown ink on laid paper, 24.8 × 22.4 cm, Ottawa, National Gallery of Canada, inv. no. 5524. Image: © National Gallery of Canada / Musée des beaux-arts du Canad
    • Fig. 2.8: Anthony van Dyck, Straits of Messina, Sicily, or Liguria, with Cumulus Clouds Above; leaf from the Italian Sketchbook, ca. 1621–1627. Pen and brown ink on paper, 19.4 × 15.5 cm, London, The British Museum, inv. no. 1957,1214.207.1. Image: © The
    • Fig. 2.9: Jan van de Velde I, Design for a Writing Exemplum with an Admiral Ship, 1605. Pen and brown ink, 21 × 30.9 cm, Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, inv. no. RP–P–1896–A–1924–8(V). Image: © Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
    • Fig. 2.10: Jacques de Gheyn II, Mountain Landscape, ca. 1600. Pen and brown ink, over black chalk, on paper, 29.2 × 38.9 cm, New York, The Morgan Library and Museum, inv. no. 1967.12. Image: © The Morgan Library and Museum.
    • Fig. 2.11: Peter Paul Rubens, Trees Reflected in Water at Sunset, ca. 1635–1638. Black, red, and orange chalks, heightened with white, on buff paper, 27.6 × 45.4 cm, London, The British Museum, inv. no. Gg.2.229. Image: © The Trustees of the British Museu
    • Fig. 3.1: Peter Paul Rubens, Landscape with St. George and the Dragon, 1630–1635. Oil on canvas, 152.5 × 226.9 cm, Windsor, Royal Collection, inv. no. RCIN 405356. Image: Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2022.
    • Fig. 3.2: Nathaniel Bacon, Landscape, 1656. Oil on unprimed copper, backed with oak panel, 7 × 11 cm, Oxford, Ashmolean Museum, inv. no. WA1908.224. Image: © Ashmolean Museum.
    • Fig. 3.3: Wolf Huber, Large Landscape with Golgotha, 1525–1530. Pen and brown ink, watercolor, and gouache, 32.7 × 44.5 cm, Erlangen-Nürnberg, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität, Graphische Sammlung der Universitätsbibliothek, inv. no. B822. Image: © Graphis
    • Fig. 3.4: Albrecht Altdorfer, St. George in the Woods, ca. 1510. Oil on parchment on linden wood, 28.2 × 22.5 cm, Munich, Alte Pinakothek, inv. no. WAF 29. Image: © bpk|Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlung.
    • Fig. 3.5: Anglo-Dutch School, London from Southwark, ca. 1630. Oil on oak panel, 57.7 × 85.7 cm, London, Museum of London, inv. no. 001697. Image: © Museum of London.
    • Fig. 3.6: Claude de Jongh, View of Old London Bridge, ca. 1630. Oil on panel, 48.9 × 109.2 cm, London, Victoria & Albert Museum, inv. no. 7129–1860. Image: © Victoria & Albert Museum, London.
    • Fig. 3.7: Jan Siberechts, Wollaton Hall, 1690s. Oil on canvas, 191.8 × 138.4 cm, New Haven, CT, Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon Collection, inv. no. B1973.1.52. Image: © Yale Center for British Art.
    • Fig. 3.8: Robert Streeter, Boscobel House and White Ladies, ca. 1670. Oil on canvas, 136.7 × 211.5 cm, Windsor, Royal Collection, inv. no. RCIN 404761. Image: Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2022.
    • Fig. 3.9: Sir Peter Lely, Diana Kirke, later Countess of Oxford, ca. 1665. Oil on canvas, 132.1 × 104.1 cm, New Haven, CT, Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon Collection, inv. no. B1981.25.756. Image: © Yale Center for British Art.
    • Fig. 3.10: Thomas Gainsborough, Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Aged 31, 1785–1787. Oil on canvas, 219.7 × 153.7 cm, Washington D.C., National Gallery of Art, Andrew W. Mellon Collection, inv. no. 1937.1.92. Image: © National Gallery of Art.
    • Fig. 4.1: Johann Zoffany, The Auriol and Dashwood Families, about 1783–1787. Oil on canvas, 142 × 198 cm (unframed), Bath, The Holburne Museum. Image: © The Holburne Museum.
    • Fig. 4.2: Captain R. B. Hill, Botanical Gardens, Calcutta, 1850s. Albumen silver print, 19.6 × 24.3 cm (image), New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gilman Collection, inv. no. 2005.100.948.2 (25). Image: © The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
    • Fig. 4.3: Company School, Nerium tinctorium, in William Roxburgh, Icones Roxburghianae, or Drawings of Indian Plants, 1785–1791, no. 18 (K). Watercolor, graphite, and ink on paper, 51.5 × 35.7 cm (sheet), 47.2 × 30.5 cm (image), Kew, Royal Botanic Gardens
    • Fig. 4.4: Indigofera caerulea Roxb., specimen no. K001121003, collected Patna, April 9, 1812. Indigo plant on paper, 26.7 × 42.6 cm (sheet), Kew, Royal Botanic Gardens, cat. no. 5460, http://specimens.kew.org/herbarium/K001121003. Image: © Board of Truste
    • Fig. 4.5: Krishnanagar Artist, Model of an Indigo Factory, detail, 1883–1884. Clay, paint, glass, bamboo, and other materials, 203.2 × 101.6 × 30.48 cm, Kolkata, Botanical Survey of India, Industrial Section Indian Museum (BSI ISIM). Image: © Botanical Su
    • Fig. 4.6: “Indigo Cultivation in Tirhoot, Bengal,” The Graphic (February 12, 1881), 165. Engraving, 29.3 × 40 cm, Syracuse, NY, Author’s Collection. Image: © Author.
    • Fig. 4.7: Oscar Mallitte, “Beating a Vat by Hand,” in The Planting & Manufacture of Indigo in India: 29 Photographic Views, Allahabad, India, 1877. Album with albumen silver print, 18.3 × 23.7 cm (image), Los Angeles, The J. Paul Getty Museum, inv. no. 84
    • Fig. 4.8: Piece of Indigo Dye from India, 6.35 × 6.35 cm. Image: © Wikimedia Creative Commons. Photo: Evan Izer.
    • Fig. 5.1: Anonymous, Perseus Transforming Atlas, first half of the seventeenth century. Oil on bardiglio grigio, 27 × 23 cm, Isola Bella, Lago Maggiore, Palazzo Borromeo, inv. no. PIT–01048. Image: © Archivio Fotografico Borromeo Isola Bella.
    • Fig. 5.2: Johann Wilhelm Bauer, Perseus Transforming Atlas, in Johann Wilhelm Bauer, Imagines sive illustrationes ad Publii Ovidii Nasonis Metamorphoseon libros XV (Vienna: [s. n.], 1641), fol. 42r. Etching, 13 × 20.5 cm, Munich, Bayerische Staatsbiblioth
    • Fig. 5.3: Carlo Simonetta (attributed), Teatro Massimo, 1667–1677. Isola Bella, Lago Maggiore. Image: © Roberto Crepaldi, Italy.
    • Fig. 5.4: Jacques Callot, “Effigia impressa de la natura a un bianco marmo dicono che sia S. Girolamo,” in Bernardino d’Amico, Trattato delle piante, & immagini de sacri edifizi di Terra Santa (Florence: Pietro Cecconcelli, 1620), fig. 8. Engraving, 26.7 
    • Fig. 5.5: Bernard Palissy (attributed), Oval Plate, mid-sixteenth century. Lead-glazed earthenware, 6.2 × 33 × 25.3 cm, Los Angeles, The J. Paul Getty Museum, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Alain Moatti in honor of Peter Fusco, inv. no. 97.DE.46. Image: © The J. Pa
    • Fig. 5.6: Antonio Tempesta (attributed), Conquest of Jerusalem, 1615–1630. Oil on pietra paesina, 24 × 37 cm, Rome, Galleria Borghese, inv. no. 520. Image: © Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali e per il Turismo–Galleria Borghese.
    • Fig. 5.7: Dionisio Maniggio, Title Page of the Feather Book, 1618. Feathers on paper, 47.6 × 30.5 cm, Montreal, McGill University Library, Rare Books and Special Collections, Blacker Wood Natural History Collection, call no. folio ORHQ M66. Image: © Publi
    • Fig. 5.8: Anonymous, Perseus with Medusa’s head, detail of Fig. 5.1.
    • Fig. 5.9: Giovanni Battista Coriolano, I. “Tabella in qua visuntur homines, et iumenta petrificata,” in Ulisse Aldrovandi, Musaeum metallicum in libros IV distributum Bartholomaeus Ambrosinus (Bologna: Giovanni Battista Ferroni, 1648), 823. Engraving, 35 
    • Fig. 5.10: Anonymous, Veins of Petrified Wood, in Francesco Stelluti, Trattato del legno fossile minerale nuovamente scoperto (Rome: Vitale Mascardi, 1637), plate 5. Engraving, 33 × 23 cm, Los Angeles, Getty Research Institute, call no. 1364–392. Image: ©
    • Fig. 5.11: Anonymous, Ammonites and Fragments of Ammonites, in Francesco Stelluti, Trattato del legno fossile minerale nuovamente scoperto (Rome: Vitale Mascardi, 1637), plate 13. Engraving, 33 × 23 cm, Los Angeles, Getty Research Institute, call no. 1364
    • Fig. 6.1: Anonymous, Mining Landscape, in Georg Agricola, De re metallica libri XII (Basel: Froben, 1556), 74. Woodcut, 21 × 33 cm, Basel, Universitätsbibliothek, call no. hv I.22. Image: © Public Domain.
    • Fig. 6.2: St. Daniel Receiving an Ore Specimen, in Schwazer Bergbuch (1556), fol. 1r. Colored drawing, 21 × 33 cm, Leoben, Bibliothek der Montanuniversität Leoben, codex 1556, call no. 2737 Direktion. Image: © Bibliothek der Montanuniversität Leoben.
    • Fig. 6.3: Artist “L.A.,” Metercia (St. Anne, the Virgin Mary, and the Baby Jesus in a Mining Scene), 1513. Oil on canvas, 170 × 125 cm, Rožňava (Slovakia), Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Image: © Institute for Medieval and Early M
    • Fig. 6.4: Divine Agency in the Formation of Minerals, in Martin Stürz, Speculum metallorum (1575), fols. 20r, 70v. Drawing, 31.7 × 19.5 cm, Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, codex 11.134. Image: © Österreichische Nationalbibliothek.
    • Fig. 6.5: Caspar Ulich, Handstein with Mine and Crucifixion, third quarter of the sixteenth century. Gold-plated silver, argentite, minerals, enamel, and glass, 30 × 14 × 11 cm, Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum, inv. no. Kunstkammer 4157. Image: © Kunsthi
    • Fig. 6.6: Pieter Coecke van Aelst, Arch of the Mint from the Entry of Charles V and Prince Philip into Antwerp in 1549, in Cornelius Grapheus, Le triumphe d’Anuers, faict en la suspection du Prince Philips, Prince d’Espaigne (Antwerp: P. De Lens, 1550). W
    • Fig. 6.7: Lazarus Ercker, Frontispiece, in Aula subterranea domina dominantium subdita subditorum (Frankfurt: P. Humm, 1673). Engraving, Dresden, Sächsische Landesbibliothek, Digitale Sammlungen, call no. Metall.12. Image: © Public Domain.
    • Fig. 6.8: Anonymous, Mining Landscape in Markirch (Vosges), late sixteenth century. Copper engraving on laid paper, 24.8 × 36.2 cm, Stuttgart, Staatsgalerie Graphische Sammlung, inv. no. An 1848. Image: © Staatsgalerie Stuttgart.
    • Fig. 7.1: Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The Harvesters, 1565. Oil on panel, 119 × 162 cm, New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, inv. no. 19.164. Image: © The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
    • Fig. 7.2: Pieter van der Borcht after Joos de Momper II and Cornelis Floris III, Stage of Agriculture, in Descriptio publicae gratulationis spectaculorum et ludorum in adventu Serenissimi Principis Ernesti (Antwerp: Officina Plantiniana, 1595), 54–55. Eng
    • Fig. 7.3: Pieter van der Borcht after Joos de Momper II and Cornelis Floris III, Arrival of Archduke Ernest outside of Antwerp, in Descriptio publicae gratulationis spectaculorum et ludorum in adventu Serenissimi Principis Ernesti (Antwerp: Officina Plant
    • Fig. 7.4: Abraham de Bruyn (attributed to), Arrival of the Duke of Anjou and William the Silent outside of Antwerp, in La ioyeuse et magnifique entrée de Françoys […] Duc de Brabant, d’Anjou (Antwerp: Christoffel Plantijn, 1582), after 14. Etching, 29.7 ×
    • Fig. 7.5: Pieter van der Borcht after Joos de Momper II and Cornelis Floris III, Central tableau vivant of the Stage of Agriculture, detail of Fig. 7.2.
    • Fig. 7.6: Pieter van der Borcht after Joos de Momper II and Cornelis Floris III, Painted frieze with agricultural tools, products, and a bucranium on the front of the Stage of Agriculture, detail of Fig. 7.2.
    • Fig. 7.7: Pieter van der Borcht after Joos de Momper II and Cornelis Floris III, Coat of arms on top of the Stage of Agriculture, detail of Fig. 7.2.
    • Fig. 8.1: The Winter Room, Rosenborg Castle, Copenhagen. Image: © The Royal Danish Collection, Rosenborg Castle.
    • Fig. 8.2: The south wall of the Winter Room, Rosenborg Castle, Copenhagen. Image: © The Royal Danish Collection, Rosenborg Castle.
    • Fig. 8.3: Fluted column with ionic capitals in the Winter Room, Rosenborg Castle, Copenhagen. Image: © The Royal Danish Collection, Rosenborg Castle.
    • Fig. 8.4: Carved column base with ornamental mask in the Winter Room, Rosenborg Castle, Copenhagen. Image: © Photo: Author.
    • Fig. 8.5: Joos de Momper II and Jan Brueghel I, Mountainous Landscape with Travelers on a Hilly Road, 1610–1615. Oil on oak panel, 43 × 66 cm, Copenhagen, Rosenborg Castle, Winter Room. Image: © Photo Collection RKD–Netherlands Institute for Art History,
    • Fig. 8.6: Baldassare Peruzzi, Sala delle Prospettive, 1517–1519, Rome, Villa Farnesina. Image: © Wikimedia Creative Commons. Photo: Miguel Hermoso Cuesta.
    • Fig. 8.7: Frames used in the Winter Room, Rosenborg Castle, Copenhagen. Image: © Photo: Author.
    • Fig. 8.8: Otto Heiden, Castle of Rosenborg, seventeenth century. Drawing, 21.8 × 29.8 cm, London, The British Museum, inv. no. 1868,0612.1603. Image: © The Trustees of the British Museum.
    • Fig. 8.9: Anonymous, Personification of Hope (Spes), ca. 1614–1615. Oil on oak panel, Copenhagen, Rosenborg Castle, Winter Room. Image: © Photo Collection RKD–Netherlands Institute for Art History, The Hague, inv. no. 0001326398.
    • Fig. 8.10: Floor opening in the Winter Room leading to the musicians’ cellar, Rosenborg Castle, Copenhagen. Image: © The Royal Danish Collection, Rosenborg Castle. Photo: Peter Nørby.
    • Fig. 8.11: Section of the eastern wall of the Winter Room with Sebastiaan Vrancx (circle of), A Picnic in a Park, ca. 1617–1620, oil on oak panel, 49 × 64 cm; and Osias Beert I (circle of), Still Life with Drinking Vessels, Fruit and Pastries, ca. 1617–16
    • Fig. 9.1: Joannes and Lucas van Doetecum after Pieter Bruegel, View of the Tiber at Tivoli (Prospectus Tiburtinus), 1555–1556. Etching and engraving, 39.8 × 42 cm, Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. no. RP–P–OB–7351. Image: © Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
    • Fig. 9.2: Joannes and Lucas van Doetecum after Pieter Bruegel, Anthropomorphic rocks, detail of Fig. 9.1.
    • Fig. 9.3: Jacques de Gheyn, Anthropomorphic Rocks, early seventeenth century. Drawing, brown ink on paper, 26.6 × 17.5 cm, Paris, Fondation Custodia, Collection Frits Lugt, inv. no. 5094. Image: © The Fondation Custodia.
    • Fig. 9.4: Jan Brueghel, Ponte San Rocco, early seventeenth century. Drawing, brown ink on paper, 38.1 × 27.2 cm, Cleveland, Cleveland Museum of Art, inv. no. 1954–56. Image: © The Cleveland Museum of Art.
    • Fig. 9.5: Pieter van der Heyden after Pieter Bruegel, Invidia (Envy), 1557. Engraving, 22.5 × 29.6 cm, Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. no. RP–P–1887–A–12303. Image: © Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
    • Fig. 9.6: Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Superbia (Pride), 1557. Drawing, brown ink on paper, 22.9 × 30 cm, Paris, Fondation Custodia, Collection Frits Lugt, inv. no. 465. Image: © The Fondation Custodia.
    • Fig. 9.7: Joannes and Lucas van Doetecum, after Pieter Bruegel, Insidiosus Auceps (The Crafty Bird Catcher), 1555–1556. Etching and engraving, 42.5 × 32.1 cm, Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. no. RP–P–H–T–31. Image: © Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
    • Fig. 9.8: Hans Sebald Beham, The Devil as Bird Trapper, in Johann von Schwarzberg, Die Beschwerung der alten Teufelischen Schlangen mit dem Göttlichen Wort (Nuremberg: Steiner, 1525), fol. 106r. Woodcut, 9.8 × 9.7 cm, Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek,
    • Fig. 9.9: Joannes and Lucas van Doetecum, after Pieter Bruegel, Anthropomorphic rock, detail of Fig. 9.7.
    • Fig. 9.10: Matthäus Merian, Anthropomorphic Landscape, early seventeenth century. Engraving, 17.2 × 12.9 cm, Private Collection. Image: © Private Collection.
    • Fig. 9.11: Pieter Bruegel, The Rabbit Hunt, 1560. Etching, 21.3 × 19.2 cm, Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv. no. RP–P–OB–2141. Image: © Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
    • Fig. 9.12: Pieter Bruegel, The hunter and the solider, detail of Fig. 9.11.
    • Fig. 9.13: Pieter Bruegel, The Rabbit Hunt, 1560. Drawing, pen, brown ink, and black chalk, 21.3 × 19.6 cm, Paris, Fondation Custodia, Collection Frits Lugt, inv. no. 6959. Image: © The Fondation Custodia.
    • Fig. 10.1: Anonymous, Warhaffte abbildung deß fläckens PLURS, in den Grawen Pündten gelagen (Zurich: Johann Hardmeyer, 1618). Flap broadside with etching and letterpress, 54 × 42 cm (sheet), Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, call no. IP 18. Image: ©
    • Fig. 10.2: Anonymous, Flap down, detail of Fig. 10.1.
    • Fig. 10.3: Anonymous, Flap lifted, detail of Fig. 10.1.
    • Fig. 10.4: Jacopo Ligozzi (after), Before and After Views of Mountain, in Lino Moroni, Descrizione del sacro monte della Vernia (Florence: [s. n.], 1612). Engraving, etching, and letterpress, with flaps, 44 x 31 cm (sheet), plate I, Chicago, Newberry Libr
    • Fig. 10.5: Daniel Mannasser (engraver), Warhafftige und erschröckliche Newe Zeittung, Von dem plötzlichen undergang, deß wol bekandten Flecken Plurs in Bergel, und gemeinen dreyen Bünten gelegen, Wie ein blötzlich Ruina anderseytes deß Berges sich herab g
    • Fig. 10.6: Wilhelm Peter Zimmerman (engraver), Title Page, in Il Compassionevole Infortunio, Occurso alli 4 di Settembre del presente anno 1618 all infelice Terra di Piure; quale è restata somersa sotto parte d’una Montagna, con perdita di tutte le gente,
    • Fig. 10.7: Wilhelm Peter Zimmerman, Before the Plurs Disaster, in Il Compassionevole Infortunio. Fold-out etching, 24.1 × 33.5 cm (plate), Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, call no. 4 Helv. 300. Image: © Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich.
    • Fig. 10.8: Johann Philipp Walch, Warhaffte Abbildung deß Flecken Plurs, in Grawen Bündten gelegen (Nuremberg: Hans Philip Walch, 1619). Etching and letterpress with rockslide on flap, 41.2 × 33.5 cm (sheet), Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, call no.
    • Fig. 10.9: Jacob van der Heyden, Warhaffte abbildung deß fläckens PLURS, in den Grawen Pündten gelägen (Strasbourg: [Jacob] van der Heyden, 1619). Etching with letterpress, 48.5 × 40.1 cm (sheet), Halle an der Saale, Kulturstiftung Sachsen-Anhalt, Kunstmu
    • Fig. 10.10: Johann Philipp Walch, Warhafftige Abbildung deß Flecken Plurs, in Grawen Bündten gelegen, wie solcher noch in Flor gewesen, und auch, wie solcher nach seinem schröcklichen Untergang anzusehen (Nuremberg: Hans Philip Walch, 1619). Etching and
    • Fig. 10.11: Johann Philipp Walch, Warhafftige Abbildung deß Flecken Plurs, in Grawen Bündten gelegen: wie solcher noch in Flor gewesen, und auch, wie solcher nach seinem schröcklichen Untergang anzusehen (Nuremberg: Hans Philip Walch, 1619). Etching and
    • Fig. 10.12: Johann Philipp Walch, Etched flap remnant and red wax (in place of missing flap), detail of Fig. 11.
    • Fig. 10.13: Michael Wolgemut and workshop, Destruction of Burgundian Mountain, in Das Buch der Chroniken und Geschichten (Nuremberg: Hartmann Schedel, 1493), fol. 212v. Woodcut and letterpress, 10 × 8 cm (block), Chicago, Newberry Library, call no. Inc.20
    • Fig. 10.14: Balthasar Schwan, Warhafftige abbildung des fleckens Plürs, in Grauenbünden gelegen, wie solcher Flecken noch in Esse und Flor gewesen Anno 1618, Warhaffte abbildung des orhts da der flecken Plurs gestanden, wie solcher nach seinem schröckl
    • Fig. 10.15: Anonymous, Eigentlicher Abriß, Auch Waarhafftiger Bericht, wie es mit Eroberung der uhralten, Weitberühmbten Stadt Magdeburg hergangen… Der 10 oder 30 Mai, 1631 ([Strasbourg: Jacob van der Heyden?], 1631). Etching with letterpress on two attac
    • Fig. 10.16: Jacob van der Heyden, Eigentlicher Bericht, So wol auch Abcontrafeytung, welcher gestalt die weitberühmbte unnd mächtige Hense Statt Magdeburg von dem Käyserlichen General Herrn Serclas Grafen von Tilly, a. den 20 Tag Maji dieses jetzkauffende
    • Fig. 10.17: Jacob van der Heyden, Flap lifted, detail of Fig. 10.16.
    • Fig. 10.18: Anonymous, Warhaffte abbildung deß fläckens Plurs, in den Grawen Pündten gelagen (Zurich: Johann Hardmeyer, 1618). Flap broadside with etching and letterpress, hand-colored, 52 × 39.5 cm (sheet), Zurich, Schweizerisches Nationalmuseum, call no
    • Fig. 11.1: Anna Halprin, Dancers at Halprin’s Driftwood Beach Summer Event Joint Workshop, 1966. Still image. Image: © Anna Halprin, courtesy of the Museum of Performance and Design, San Francisco. Photo: Constance Beeson.
    • Fig. 11.2: Anna and Lawrence Halprin, Scores and Documentation, Installation view, documenta 14, Athens, 2017. Image: © Anna and Lawrence Halprin.
    • Fig. 11.3: Anna and Lawrence Halprin, Scores and Documentation, Installation view, documenta 14, Athens, 2017. Image: © Anna and Lawrence Halprin.
    • Fig. 11.4: Lawrence Halprin, Sea Ranch Ecoscore, ca. 1968, in Lawrence Halprin, The RSVP Cycles (New York: George Braziller, 1970), 122–23. Image: © The Halprin Estate.
    • Fig. 11.5: Pierre Huyghe, After ALife Ahead, temporary installation for the duration of the exhibition Skulptur Projekte, Münster, 2017. Concrete floor of ice rink, logic game, ammoniac, sand, clay, phreatic water, bacteria, algae, bees, aquarium, black s
    • Fig. 11.6: Edward Burtynsky, Phosphor Tailings Pond #4, near Lakeland, Florida, 2012. Archival pigment print. Image: © Edward Burtynsky, courtesy of Flowers Gallery, London / Nicholas Metivier Gallery, Toronto.
    • Fig. 11.7: Richard Serra, Sawing Device: Base Plate Measure, 1970, in Richard Serra, ed., Richard Serra (Pasadena: Pasadena Art Museum, 1970), [14]. Image: © ProLitteris, Zurich, 2021.
    • Fig. 11.8: Richard Serra, Sawing Device: Base Plate Measure, 1970, in Richard Serra, ed., Richard Serra (Pasadena: Pasadena Art Museum, 1970), [18]. Image: © ProLitteris, Zurich, 2021.
    • Fig. 11.9: Regina José Galindo, Tierra, 2013, Moulins, France. Video, color, and sound, 33 min 56 sec. Image: © Regina José Galindo, courtesy of Prometeo Gallery Ida Pisani Milan-Lucca. Credits: Regina José Galindo, Lucy + Jorge Orta (producers), Bertrand
    • Fig. 11.10: Hamish Fulton, Limmat Art Walk, Zurich, 2012. Performance art. Image: Courtesy of Häusler Contemporary. Photo: Barbora Gerny.
    • Fig. 11.11: Mai-Thu Perret, And Every Woman Will Be a Walking Synthesis of the Universe, 2006. Installation view. Image: © Renaissance Society at the University of Chicago. Photo: Tom Van Eynde.
    • Fig. 11.12: Andrea Zittel, A–Z Wagon Stations: Second Generation, California, 2012–present. Powder coated steel, aluminum, plexiglass, wood, canvas, futon, pillow, hand brush, and straw hat, 91.4 × 228.6 × 228.6 cm. Image: © Andrea Zittel, courtesy of the

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